Set, Seth

Dua Set and Walk Forth in Strength

by Jeff Dahl
by Jeff Dahl

Today is Set’s Birthday on the Kemetic Orthodox Calendar.

I have lit His candle and said his prayer as I did for Wesir and Heru Wer the two days prior.

Saryt, a talented musician, singer, and sculptor has written and sang two songs dedicated to Set.  I would like to share them with you on His birthday.

Dua Set by Catfolk

http://catfolk.org/track/dua-set

Walk Forth in Strength by Catfolk

http://catfolk.org/track/walk-forth-in-strength

Dua Set!  Happy Birthday to the Red Lord!

Articles, Athena

Athena’s Relationship with Other Gods and Goddesses

Athena’s Relationships with Other Gods and Goddesses
by JewelofAset

Relationship with Zeus
At Athena’s birth, she sprung forth from Zeus’s head in full armor, her war cry resounding through the Heavens and Earth. Zeus bestowed upon her these honors: his Aegis and she alone save Zeus can wield the power of the Thunderbolt.

Both of them can bring storms to those at sea. Zeus and Athena shared many epithets and spheres of expertise.

Deacy states them as (Athena/Zeus):
Savior (Soteria/Soter), Of the Council (Boulaia/Boulaios), Of the Olive Tree (Moria/Morios), Founder of the City (Archegetes/Archegetis), Of the City (Polias/Polieus) and patrons of Phratries (Phratria/Phratrios) (1).

Relationship with Hera
Hera as the wife of Zeus would be Athena’s “Mother” (Step-Mother in our parlance). In Hera’s Temple at Olympia there was a statue of Athena wearing a helmet and carrying a spear and shield (2). Within the Illiad, Hera’s dress was hand woven by Athena for her (3).

At the Proteleia Festival, a Priestess of Athena gave Athena a sacrifice or offering to aid in the marriages, fertility and childbearing of young brides. Hera as the Goddess of Marriage par excellence would have most likely been given a sacrifice as well (4). This is an example of where their cults may have intersected.

Both Goddesses are also patrons of housewives, domestic work and the tending of the home.

Relationship with Ares
Athena is a deity of war. She is both the goddess of just war and the horrors of war. Ares is the god of war, par excellence, while Athena is a goddess of war when it is necessary. She is the goddess of war and has many other attributes. At Olympia, Athena Hippia and Ares Hippios were honored together as deities associated with horses (5). Both of these deities were associated with war. Athene was more associated with just or defensive war, while Ares was more linked to the bloodshed, carnage and chaos of war.

Relationship with Hygeia
Pausanias in his Description of Greece mentions that the goddess Hygeia (Health) is the daughter of Asklepios (Healing God) and Athena Hygeia (Health) (6).

Relationship with Poseidon
Both Athena and Poseidon wanted Athens to be their patron city. Each offered a gift to the city, Poseidon offered a body of water and Athena planted the first olive tree. The sea water would offer fish and some shipping expeditions at certain times of the year, and Athena’s olive tree would offer fruit, oil and wood. Athena was awarded the city. In anger, Poseidon flooded the plains (7). In another version of this myth, Poseidon offered the horse instead of the sea. He still lost to Athena (8).

On the Hill of Kolonos, Poseidon Hippios and Athena Hippia were worshipped together as deities related to horses (9). In one Libyan myth, Athena was blue-eyed as she was the daughter of Poseidon and Lake Tritonis (10).

Athena’s maritime attributes include building of ships, piloting vessels and navigation (11). She could brew up storms upon command; she destroyed ships returning from Troy after they had committed sacrilege in her temple (12).

Relationship with Hephaistos
Athena was a goddess who weaved her own clothing. As the patron of women who worked at the loom, she aided women in domestic chores in their homes or those who sold their woven crafts at the market (13). Hephaistos on the other hand was a god of the forge, metal working and smiths.

According to Deacy, the difference between Athena and Hephaistos was that the goddess’s crafts were made from wool and other animal parts while Hephaistos’s crafts were things made in a forge. They share a festival (the Chalkeia) where they are honored together as Holy Powers associated with blacksmiths and artisans (14).

Relationship with Hestia
Athene was associated with the work women did in the home. Hestia is the goddess of the home and hearth itself. These two have over-lapping influence here.

Both Goddesses had fires associated with them. Athena’s cult also contained a flame within an eschara vessel which was re-lit by a Priestess every day. The difference here between flame of Hestia and this flame of Athena was that Hestia’s was a perpetual flame while Athena’s was re-kindled daily (15). Also Athena’s name may mean “vessel containing a flame” which is what an eschara does while Hestia’s name means “hearth” which is where the fire was lit in the home (16).

Relationship to Erichthonois
After being rejected by Aphrodite, Hephaistos tried to have sex with Athena. His sperm ended up on her leg. In disgust, she wiped it off with some wool and threw it to the ground. In some versions of the story, the goddess Gaia came up from the earth and gave the baby Erichthonois to Athena. Athena gave him to some of her priestesses to raise in Athens. Erichthonois was kept in a box with a snake; the Priestesses were never to open it. Athena was trying to make her son immortal. Two of the priestesses opened the box.

The two women who opened the box were either killed by the snake or were driven mad by the goddess herself and flung themselves off the Akropolis (17). Athena then raised the child in her own temple. According to myth, Erichthonois placed the first statue of the goddess there and founded the festival of Panathenaia for Athena (18).

There was a snake-spirit who was the guardian of the Akropolis. Each month he was given a honey-cake to elicit his protection. There is a statue of Athena with a serpent. This serpent is believed to be the guardian-spirit.

Pausanias describes the snake of Athena Parthenos statue as Erichthonois. Erichthonois was both a ancestor raised by Athena and an guardian serpent spirit of the Akropolis who was petitioned to for protection (19).

Relationship with Hades
In the town of Koroneia in Boeotia, Athene was worshiped with Hades. Strabo says that it came about because of a spiritual or religious mystery. And in Plato’s Laws, the Athenian names Athena as “our Kore and Despoina” which means “our Persephone” (20). Kerenyi also states that both Persephone and Athena are associated with the pomegranate (21).

Sources

(1) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 78-79.

(2) Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 17. 2

(3) Neils, Jenifer. “Pride, Pomp and Circumstance,” in Worshiping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), 196-197.

(4) Connelly, Joan Breton. Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece. (Princeton University Press, 2007), 200.

(5) Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. (Spring Publications, 1988), 46.

(6) Pausanias. Description of Greece: Books 1-2. translated by W. H. S. Jones. (Loeb Classical Library, 1918; Harvard University Press, reprint), 117.

(7) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 79-80.

(8) Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. (Spring Publications, 1988), 46.

(9) Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. (Spring Publications, 1988), 46.

(10) Pausanias. Description of Greece: Books 1-2. translated by W. H. S. Jones. (Loeb Classical Library, 1918; Harvard University Press, reprint), 75. 1.14.6; Pausanias says that this was at a Temple of Hephaistos where the statue of Athena had blue eyes.

(11) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 49.

(12) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 49.

(13) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 51.

(14) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 52-53.

(15) Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. (Spring Publications, 1988), 35.

(16) Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. (Spring Publications, 1988), 30.

(17) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 80-83.

(18) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 85.

(19) Deacy, Susan. Athena. (Routledge, 2008), 88.

(20) Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. (Spring Publications, 1988), 32.

(21) Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. (Spring Publications, 1988), 31-32.

Athena, Hymns

Proklos Hymn to the Goddess Athena

Hymn to Athena
by Proklos

Daughter of ægis-bearing Jove, divine,
Propitious to thy vot’ries prayer incline;
From thy great father’s fount supremely bright,
Like fire resounding, leaping into light.
Shield-bearing goddess, hear, to whom belong
A manly mind, and power to tame the strong!
Oh, sprung from matchless might, with joyful mind
Accept this hymn; benevolent and kind!
The holy gates of wisdom by thy hand
Are wide unfolded; and the daring band
Of earth-born giants, that in impious fight
Strove with thy fire, were vanquish’d by thy might.
Once by thy care, as sacred poets sing,
The heart of Bacchus, swiftly-slaughter’d king,
Was sav’d in æther, when, with fury fir’d,
The Titans fell against his life conspir’d;
And with relentless rage and thirst for gore,
Their hands his members into fragments tore:
But ever watchful of thy father’s will,
Thy pow’r preserv’d him from succeeding ill,
Till from the secret counsels of his sire,
And born from Semele through heav’nly fire,
Great Dionysius to the world at length
Again appear’d with renovated strength.
Once, too, thy warlike axe, with matchless sway,
Lopp’d from their savage neck the heads away
Of furious beasts, and thus the pests destroy’d
Which long all-seeing Hecate annoy’d.
By thee benevolent great Juno’s might
Was rous’d, to furnish mortals with delight:
And through life’s wide and various range ’tis thine
Each part to beautify with arts divine:
Invigorated hence by thee, we find
A demiurgic impulse in the mind.
Towers proudly rais’d, and for protection strong,
To thee, dread guardian, deity belong,
As proper symbols of th’ exalted height
Thy series claims amidst the courts of light.
Lands are belov’d by thee to learning prone,
And Athens, O Athena, is thy own!
Great goddess, hear! and on my dark’ned mind
Pour thy pure light in measure unconfin’d;—
That sacred light, O all-protecting queen,
Which beams eternal from thy face serene:
My soul, while wand’ring on the earth, inspire
With thy own blessed and impulsive fire;
And from thy fables, mystic and divine,
Give all her powers with holy light to shine.
Give love, give wisdom, and a power to love,
Incessant tending to the realms above;
Such as, unconscious of base earth’s control,
Gently attracts the vice-subduing soul;
From night’s dark region aids her to retire,
And once more gain the palace of her sire:
And if on me some just misfortune press,
Remove th’ affliction, and thy suppliant bless.
All-saving goddess, to my prayer incline!
Nor let those horrid punishments be mine
Which guilty souls in Tartarus confine,
With fetters fast’ned to its brazen floors,
And lock’d by hell’s tremendous iron doors.
Hear me, and save (for power is all thy own)
A soul desirous to be thine alone.

Source

Hymn to Athena by Proklos

and found here:

Hymn to Athena by Proklos

Athena, Hymns

Orphic Hymn to the Goddess Athena

[31] XXXI. TO PALLAS [ATHENE]

A Hymn.
Only-Begotten, noble race of Jove, blessed and fierce, who joy’st in caves to rove:
O, warlike Pallas, whose illustrious kind, ineffable and effable we find:
Magnanimous and fam’d, the rocky height, and groves, and shady mountains thee delight:
In arms rejoicing, who with Furies dire and wild, the souls of mortals dost inspire.
Gymnastic virgin of terrific mind, dire Gorgons bane, unmarried, blessed, kind:
Mother of arts, imperious; understood, rage to the wicked., wisdom to the good:
Female and male, the arts of war are thine, fanatic, much-form’d dragoness [Drakaina], divine:
O’er the Phlegrean giants rous’d to ire, thy coursers driving, with destruction dire.
Sprung from the head of Jove [Tritogeneia], of splendid mien, purger of evils, all-victorious queen.
Hear me, O Goddess, when to thee I pray, with supplicating voice both night and day,
And in my latest hour, peace and health, propitious times, and necessary wealth,
And, ever present, be thy vot’ries aid, O, much implor’d, art’s parent, blue eyed maid.

Source:
The Hymns of Orpheus. Translated by Taylor, Thomas (1792)
Athene’s Orphic Hymn from Theoi.com.

A more modern translation can be found here: Orphic Hymns translated by Apostolos N. Athanassakis

Athena, Offerings and Symbols

Offerings for the Goddess Athena

Offerings of Athena

Some of these offerings are from historical sources and others are from my personal experience with the Goddess.

Liquid Offerings
Water
Milk
Oil (Olive Oil)
Wine
Honey

Food Offerings
Bread
Cakes
Grains
Fruit
Olives

Meat Offerings
Various kinds of Meat
Fish

Non-Food Offerings
Scents: Aromatic or Sweet-Smelling Herbs; Myrrh
Light: Oil Lamp; White or Blue Candles
Colors: Blue, Sea colors
Flowers: Roses, Sweet Smelling Flowers

Taboos
Things or events that would cause miasma.

Sources

Homer. The Homeric Hymns: A Translation, with Introduction and Notes. translated by Diane Rayor. University of California Press, 2004.

The Orphic Hymns. trans. By Apostolos N. Athanassakis. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

Connelly, Joan Breton. Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece. (Princeton University Press, 2007) 180.

Shrine of the Goddess Athena

Neos Alexandria: Athena

Theoi.com: Athena

Athena, Hymns

Homeric Hymn to the Goddess Athene

HOMERIC HYMNS, TRANS. BY H. G. EVELYN-WHITE

XXVIII. TO ATHENA

[1] I begin to sing of Pallas Athene, the glorious goddess, bright-eyed, inventive, unbending of heart, pure virgin, saviour of cities, courageous, Tritogeneia.
From his awful head wise Zeus himself bare her arrayed in warlike arms of flashing gold, and awe seized all the gods as they gazed.
But Athena sprang quickly from the immortal head and stood before Zeus who holds the aegis, shaking a sharp spear: great Olympus began to reel horribly at the might of the bright-eyed goddess, and earth round about cried fearfully,
and the sea was moved and tossed with dark waves, while foam burst forth suddenly: the bright Son of Hyperion stopped his swift-footed horses a long while, until the maiden Pallas Athene had stripped the heavenly armour from
her immortal shoulders. And wise Zeus was glad. And so hail to you, daughter of Zeus who holds the aegis! Now I will remember you and another song as well.

XI. TO ATHENA

[1] Of Pallas Athene, guardian of the city, I begin to sing. Dread is she, and with Ares she loves deeds of war, the sack of cities and the shouting and the battle. It is she who saves the people as they go out to war and come back. Hail, goddess, and give us good fortune with happiness!

Source

From here: Homeric Hymn to Athena

The other Homeric Hymn to Athena
Short Homeric Hymn to Athena

Athena, Festivals

Festivals of the Goddess Athena

Feasts of Athene

Monthly Festivals
3-Birthday of Athene/Triomenis
13- Birthday of Athene/Triomenis
23- Birthday of Athene/Triomenis

Hekatombaion/Creteon – July/August
15 to 16-Festival of Athene/Sunoikia
23 to 30-Birthday of Athene/Panathenaia

Metageitnion/Diomedeon – August/September
12-Sacrifice to Athene Polias
13 of September-Festival of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva

Boedromion/Hippeon – September/October
2-Festival of Athene and Nike/Niketeria
27-Sacrifice to Athene

Pyanepsion/Gereon – October/November
19 to 21-Sacrifice to Athene Phratria/Apatouria
30-Procession and Offering to Athena Ergane/Khalkeia

Maimakterion/Hespereon – November/December
Monthly Feasts

Poseideon/Cerbreon – December/January
Monthly Feasts

Gamelion/Nemeaneon – January/February
9-Sacrifice to Athene

Anthesterion/Lerneon – February/March
Monthly Feasts

Elaphebolion/Archaedeon – March/April
19 to 24 of March-Festival of Mars and Minerva/Quinquatrus

Mounichion/Erymantheon – April/May
Monthly Feasts

Thargelion/Augeon – May/June
20 to 25-Spring Cleaning of the Temple of Athene/Kallynteria
25 to 30 of May-Festival of Washing the Statue of Athene/Plynteria

Skirophorion/Stymphaleon – June/July
3-Festival of Athene/Arrephoria
3-Sacrifice to Athene Polias
12-Harvest Festival of Athene/Skirophoria
13 of June-Festival of Minerva/Lesser Quinquatrus
28 to 29 (or last day)-Sacrifice to Athene, the Savior/Athene Soteria

Sources

Parke, H. W. Festivals of the Athenians. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.

HMEPA: Hellenic Month Established Per Athens

Shrine of the Goddess Athena

Wikipedia Entry: Athena

Neos Alexandria: Athena

Uncategorized

Epithets of the Goddess Athena

Epithets of Athena/Athene
Ageleia–Leader of the People
Agestratos-Host Leading
Aglauros-Dewfall
Agoraia-of the Market
Aithyia–Navigation or Sea Bird
Alalkomeneia–Repeller of Danger or She Who Wards Off
Alea–Protectress or Shelter
Amboulia–Counsellor, Of the Counsels
Anemôtis–Of the Winds
Apatouria–Deceiver, Of Deception
Apatouria-of the Apatouria Festival
Archegetes–Founder of the City
Areia–Warlike
Athenon Medeousa–Queen of Athens
Atrytone–Unwearying
Axiopoinos–Avenger
Boulaia–Of the Council
Chalkioikos–Of the Bronze House
Deino-Awful
Dios Ekgegauia–Zeus-Born
Diwia–Divine
Eryma–Defender
Ergane–Worker (Patron of Crafts and Artisans)
Gigantoleteira–Destroyer of Giants
Gigantoletis–Destroyer of Giants
Glaukopis–Bright-Eyed or Gleaming Eyed or Owl Eyed or Blue Eyed or Gray Eyed
Glaukos–Fierce Eyes
Glorious Goddess
Gorgolaphas–Gorgon-Crested
Gorgopis-Gorgon Eyed
Hellotis–Broad Faced
Hephaisteia–Of Hephaistos
he Theos-The Goddess
Hippia–Of the Horse
Hygieia–Of Good Health or Healer
Keleutheia–Of the Road
Khalinitis–Bridler (of Horses)
Khalkioikon–Of the Bronze House
Kissaia–Of the Growing Ivy
Kolokasia–Of the Edible Tubers
Kranaiês–Of Cornel-Wood
Koriê–Maiden
Koryphagenês–Born of the Head
Koryphasia–Of the Head
Kranaia-Fulfiller
Kyparissia–Of the Cypress Grove
Leitis–Distributer of War Booty
Makhanitis–Contriver (of Plans and Devices)
Mechanitis-Skilled in Inventing
Meter–Mother
Moria–Of the Olive Tree
Nike–Victory
Nikephoros-Victory Bringing
Ophthalmitis–Of the Eyes
Oxyderkês–With Penetrating Gaze or Clear-Sighted
Paiônia–Healer
Pallas–Brandishing Her Spear or Aegis; or named for Pallas a friend of Athene
Panakhais-Goddess of the Akhaean League
Pandrosos-All Bedewing
Parthenos–Virgin or Maiden
Pareias-Snake
Patroia-Paternal; of the Fathers; Ancestral Goddess
Phatria–Goddess of inherited from the ancestors
Polemadoke–War Sustaining
Polias–Of the City
Poliakhos-City Holding
Poliatis–Keeper of the City
Poliouchos–Protectress of the City
Polymetis–Cunning in Many Ways or Very Cunning
Potniya–Lady
Potnia Egrekydoimos-The Queen Who Delights in Tumults, Wars and Battles
Promachos–Fighter in Front or Champion
Promakhorma–Guardian of Anchorage
Pronoia–Foresight
Pronaia–Before the Temple
Saitidos-of Sais, Egypt
Salpinx–War Trumpet
Sophia-Wisdom
Soteira–Savior
Sthenias–Strong, Mighty
Strife-Stirring
Tritogeneia–Triton Born; Born on Lake Triton
Tritonia-Triton Born; Born on Lake Triton; Born on Lake Tritonis in Libya
Tritonis-Born on Lake Triton; Born on Lake Tritonis in Libya
Xenia–Of Hospitality, Of the Foreigner
Zosteria–Of the Girdle

English Epithets of Athena
Almighty
All-Protecting Queen
All-Saving Goddess
Blue Eyed
Blue Eyed Maiden
Bright Eyed
Clever One
Courageous
Daughter of Aegis-Bearing Zeus
Divine
Dread Guardian
Dread Rouser of Battle-Strife
Gleaming Eyed
Glorious Goddess
Gray Eyed
Great Goddess
Inventive
Lady
Mistress of Animals
Mistress Who Delights in the Clamorous Cry of War and Battle and Slaughter
Of the Golden Spear
One Who is Ever Near
Owl-Eyed
Shield Bearing Goddess
Shining Among the Goddesses
Unwearied Leader of the Host

Epithets of Shrines and Cult Centers
Agoraia–Of the Market Place
Aithyia–Of the Gannet Colony
Alalkomenê– Of Alalkomenai (in Boiotia)
Alalkomenêis–Of Alalkomenai (in Boiotia)
Alea– Of Aleos (hero Arkadia)
Alektor–Rooster
Aiantis–Of Aias (hero Salamis)
Asia–Of Asia Minor
Hippolaitis–Of Hipplas (in Lakonia)
Ilia–Of Ilios (Troy)
Itonia–Of Itonos (in Thessalia)
Itonia–Of Itonos (hero Boiotia)
Kydonia–Of Kydonia (in Krete)
Kyparissia–Of Kyparissiae (in Messenia)
Larisaia–Of the River Larisos (in Akhaia)
Lindia–Of Lindos (in Rhodes)
Narkaia– Of Narkaios (hero Elis)
Nedousia–Of Nedon (in Messenia)
Panakhaia–Of All Akhaia (Region)
Pronaia–Of the Fore-Temple (Delphi)
Skiras–Of Skiras (in Salamis)
Skillyntia–Of Skillos (in Elis)
Sounia–Of Sounion (in Attika)
Telkhinia–Of Telkhinia (in Cyprus)
Tritônis– Of the River Tritonis (in Boiotia)

Cult and Festival Terms
Athênaion-Temple of Athena
Athênaia-Festival of Athena
Panathênaia-Festival of Athena
Khalkeia-Festival of the Bronzes (in Athens)
Prokharistêria-Thanksgiving Festival (in Athens)
Plyntêria-Washing Day Festival (in Athens)
Skira-Parasol Festival (in Athens)
Proteleia-Prelimenary Sacrifices (in Athens)
Aleaia-Festival of Athena Alea (in Tegea)
Hâlotia-Capture Festival (in Tegea)
Itônia-Festival of Athena Itonia (in Itonos)
Panboiôtia-All-Boiotian Festival (in Koroneia)

Sources

Theoi.com: Athena

Neos Alexandria: Athena

Homeric Hymns. translated by G. Evelyn-White. Found here: Homeric Hymn to Athena

Hymn to Athena by Proklos translated by Thomas Taylor
Found here: Hymn to Athena by Proklos.

Shrine of the Goddess Athena
whose source was this: James H. Dee, The Epithetic Phrases for the Homeric Gods: A Repertory of the Descriptive Expressions for the Divinities of the Iliad and the Odyssey. New York: Garland, 1994. ISBN 0-8153-1727-1.

The Orphic Hymns, trans. By Apostolos N. Athanassakis. Atlanta: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

The Homeric Hymns: A Translation, with Introduction and Notes. translated by Diane Rayor. University of California Press, 2004.

Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. Jenifer Neils, ed. University of Wisconsin Press, 1996.

Burkett, Walter. Greek Religion. John Raffan, trans. Harvard University Press, 1985.

Connelly, Joan Breton. Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece. Princeton University Press, 2007.

Deacy, Susan. Athena. Routledge, 2008.

Hesiod. Works and Days; and Theogony. Translated by Stanley Lombardo. Hackett Publishing Company, 1993.

Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. Spring Publications, 1988.

Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Maureen B. Fant. Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook in Translation. John Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Nilsson, Martin. Greek Folk Religion. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

Furley, William D. and Jan Maarten Bremer. Greek Hymns: Selected Cult Songs from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Period. Mohr Siebeck, 2001.

Athena

References about the Goddess Athena

Primary Sources

Hesiod. Works and Days; and Theogony. Translated by Stanley Lombardo. Hackett Publishing Company, 1993.

Homer. The Homeric Hymns: A Translation, with Introduction and Notes. translated by Diane Rayor. University of California Press, 2004.

The Orphic Hymns. trans. By Apostolos N. Athanassakis. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

Pausanias. Description of Greece: Books 1-2. translated by W. H. S. Jones. (Loeb Classical Library, 1918; Harvard University Press, reprint.

Secondary Sources

Jenifer Neils, ed. Worshiping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. University of Wisconsin Press, 1996.

Connelly, Joan Breton. Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece. Princeton University Press, 2007.

Deacy, Susan. Athena. Routledge, 2008.

Kerenyi, Karl. Athene: Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translated by Murray Stein. Spring Publications, 1988.

Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Maureen B. Fant. Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook in Translation. John Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Nilsson, Martin. Greek Folk Religion. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

Furley, William D. and Jan Maarten Bremer. Greek Hymns: Selected Cult Songs from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Period. Mohr Siebeck, 2001.

Parke, H. W. Festivals of the Athenians. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.

Articles

Kinsley, David. “Athena, Goddess of Culture and Civilization,” in The Goddesses’ Mirror: Visions of the Divine from East to West. New York: State University of New York Press, 1989, pp. 139-164.

Modern Hellenic Polytheism

Lewis, H. Jeremiah. The Balance of the Two Lands: Writings on Greco-Egyptian Polytheism. Nysa Press, 2009.

Winter, Sarah Kate Istra. Kharis: Hellenic Polytheism Explored. Createspace, 2008.

Online Sources

Theoi Project-Athena
An extensive website with all the ancient sources for each deity on the website. This site has myths, literature and cult information for each deity or spirit including Athena.

The Shrine to the Goddess Athena
This website is a great resource to the Hellenic Goddess Athena, Goddess of wisdom, war, crafts and knowledge.

Neos Alexandria-Athena
A Graeco-Egyptian syncretic polytheist group. They publish many devotionals for Egyptian, Greek, Roman and even Sumerian and Canaanite deities. This is the page about Athena on their website.

Athena

Athena’s Temples

Cult Centers of Athena

Athens, Greece
Athena Phratria
Athena Polias
Athena Parthenos at the Parthenon
Athena Nike in the Acropolis
Gate of Athena Archegetis

Temple of Athena Khalkioikos at Sparta
Temple of Athena Pronaia at Delphi
Temple of Athena at Troy
Temple of Athena at Miletus
Temple of Athena/Temple of Athena Polias at Priene
Temple of Athena at Phocaea
Temple of Athena at Pergamon
Temple of Athena Lindia at Lindus
Temple of Athena at Assos
Temple of Athena Polias at Erythrae
Temple of Athena Aphaea at Aegina
Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea
Temple of Athena Alea at Mantinea
Temples of Athena Nike, Athena Aeantis and Athena at Megara
Sanctuary of Athena Cynthia at Delos
Sanctuary of Athena Camiras at Camirus
Sanctuary of Athena Polias at Notium

Sources

Shrine of the Goddess Athena

Wikipedia Entry: Athena

Neos Alexandria: Athena